Re-Processing Old Altimetry Data

With satellite altimetry there have been two types of missions, geodetic missions (GM) and exact repeat missions (ERM). GM altimetry has a very high density of measurements that is due to its very long repeat orbit, this makes it particularly useful for deriving short wavelength features such as the variations in the geoid that are not measured through satellite gravimetry. ERM altimetry has a short repeat orbit which allows it to observe the temporal variations in the ocean topography, however this is at a cost of density.

satellite altimetry missions.PNG

Picture from the IAG 2006 geoid school presentation

The only two satellites to observe GM altimetry were ERS-1 and GEOSAT, which combined comprise of about two and a half years of observations. This is unfortunate as the technology difference between those two missions and what we have today is vastly different in many ways, particularly in the accuracy of altimetry measurements and orbits. This means that we only have precise measurements for ERM altimetry and have to interpolate the data within the areas without measurements. To perform the interpolation we can use the data from the GM altimetry, although dated, to provide a more rigorous solution then without it.

Now obviously this is not ideal due to the limited accuracy of the legacy data, however, we can apply the knowledge gained since then to reduce some of the errors from the estimated satellite position and the reduction of time elements such as tides. These are both parameters that are actually determined with the use of measurements from satellite gravimetry (which came at a later date) as well as satellite altimetry from more recent years. This means that the more recent observations are not only contributing to the established measurements of the geoid but also towards the interpolated values.

This just goes to show you that you should always keep legacy measurements because you might want to re-process with future knowledge.

Further Reading:

SANSÒ, F., & SIDERIS, M. G. (2013). Geoid determination: theory and methods.

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